White Rock In the cave of the white rock which is on the mountain Zini, an older settlement dating from the Bronze Age (2900 – 2100 BC ) came to light. The discovery was made in 1922 by the archaeologist Alessandro Delia Seta and Dora Levi. They collected fragments of pottery, millstones, an engraved ceramic pot, blades and volcanic
glass, items of decoration and food remains. During this period which was known as the first Greek period, the Pelasgon moved to Kos for the first time from Asia Minor and from other parts of Mainland Greece.
During geometrical times the white stone was considered a place of worship of the rural gods as is shown by the findings during the Greek period as well. Panas and the Nymphs were worshiped there. In the interior of the cave there is still an area for worship and in the Roman times,as it has been shown by the findings of this period.
Palatia In the area of Palatia which is located west of Kefalos, there are two churches and a small theatre from the Greek period. According to the signs found, a sanctuary dedicated to the triad of Asclipio, Igia and Omonia was built after the Omocity between and Kalymnos at the beginning of the 2nd century BC. The worship of Asclipio in the municipality of Isthmioton was carried out in ancient times and during this time the aristocracy felt the need to keep the tradition and the local cultural tradition from being lost because of the influx of foreigners.
Old Christian Settlement The first research of the beach of Kefalos which was carried out during 1935 – 1943 bought to light the Basilica of Kamariou also known as the small graveyard Basilica and Basilica of St Stefanou. Along the coast of Kefalos a settlement had spread of the old Christian period which was considered one of the most important of the island. Ceramic factories were established in the 6th – 7th century and business relations were formed between Kefalos and Konstantinoupoli.
Basilica of St. Stefanos The group of Basilicas of St Stefanos are located in the eastern area of the coast of Kefalos. It is a group of Basilicas of the old Christian period, which were discovered in 1932 and today are one of the most important monuments in Kos. It is made up of two Basilicas originally the big one was established in the south ant then the smaller one in the north, with the Baptistry in the south east and a big atrium in the west. The foundations were made on a rock made of granite which goes into the sea and so in many places the lowest areas of the walls have a rocky surface. The walls are made of rocks and lime mortar and today it stands at approximately 1m metre. The mosaic floors have been preserved and they are covered today to protect them from the weather conditions.
Small Graveyard Basilica of Kefalos 5th - 6th Century AD The small Basilica of Kefalos is located at a short distance west of St Stefanos. It is a single chamber with storage areas and outer buildings in the north and south and a big yard in the west. In one of the side areas of the church a tomb was discovered made of big ceramic plaques. According to studies the outlay of the building was made for the safe keeping of bones of a saint or martyr.
Basilica Kamari of Kefalos The basilica in Kamari Kefalos has three sides, a big arch in the east and an extended arch on the northern side. The floors of the Basilica are decorated with mosaic which are mainly geometrical in shape and depict circles and circular patterns. It is worth mentioning that there were also fish and dolphins with a double anchor depicted, which was a rare thing of this period. Another interesting finding was the engraved monogram which was found on the stone in the south east corner of the main church. It is a sphere which has a cross on it, from which the letters alpha and omega are formed.
Castle of Kefalos The castle of Kefalos is in the south east area of the mountain. It was considered a safe fortress in the 15th century. According to documents found in the archives of the Ioanniton Knights, when the Othoman fleet burnt the castle of Neratzia in 1457 in the city of Kos, the Knights commended the residents to take cover in the castles of Old Pyli, Kefalos and Andimahia.
Kastelli Kefalou It is a small fortress in the south west area of the island in the area of Sarikinou and from its position the residents could see the passing between Nisyros and Kefalos. The area was fortified from the 13th century AD and was reinforced by the Ioannites Knights in the 15th century AD.
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